Trade and Markets
Over 14 million tonnes of bivalves are produced by aquaculture every year. However, the share of bivalves entering international trade is relatively small, as most of the production is consumed within the production country. This is especially true for the top world producer, China, which produces over 80 percent of the world's bivalves, but consumes almost all of this production domestically. The amounts that do enter into international trade include about 200 000 tonnes of mussels per year, 180 000 tonnes of clams, 150 000 tonnes of scallops, and 50 000 tonnes of oysters. These figures demonstrate that less than 5 percent of world bivalve production enters international trade, one of the lowest proportions in the whole seafood trade. This is due to the very nature of bivalves, which are highly perishable and potentially risky for human health if not properly handled.
Cephalopod stocks have grown over the past five decades. According to a researcher at the Institute of Marine Research in Spain, global warming may have benefited cephalopods stocks as temperature changes and the disappearance of certain upwellings have forced some predator species away from cephalopod habitats.
As biomass on Norwegian farms pushed regulatory limits in late summer, markets have had to absorb relatively larger volumes of farmed salmon with the prevailing exceptionally high prices falling somewhat as a result. The global supply situation remains extremely tight, however, with reduced production forecasts for both Chile and Norway, and in the longer term the new price plateau is set to stay.
The fish industry is an important employer with nearly 60 million people worldwide earning their living from fishing and a further 140 million employed in the fish processing and sales sectors. Working conditions differ greatly from region to region. Most countries respect internationally-recognized labour standards but there are also some horrifying negative examples that are reminiscent of early-capitalist exploitation.