Ukraine is among the European states with the lowest water resources. While average per capita water supply is 4,600 m³ in Europe, it is just slightly over 1,000 m³ in Ukraine. Despite the critical situation with water resources, Ukraine has a certain potential for the development of fisheries, particularly aquaculture. The total area of continental waters which are of interest for fisheries is 1.7 million hectares (Figure 1). Of this, reservoirs constitute 1,078,000 ha (63.2% of the water surface), which is significantly higher than the area of lakes and estuaries (402,200 ha; 23.6%), or that of specialized ponds (208,600 ha; 12.3%).
Over the past 30 years, Spain has developed its aquaculture sector through technological investments and the promotion of marine and inland aquaculture products. Promotion has been done at government, association, and at producer level. Different tools have been used, such as fairs, exhibitions, implementation of standards, designation of origin, as well as marketing and information campaigns.
With over 124 ha of ponds and a capacity of about 170 tonnes/year, as well as a state-of-the-art processing facility, Piscicola S.R.L. in Cehu Silvaniei may become one of the important medium-sized fish farming enterprise in Romania, provided it receives an injection of capital in the near future.
Zander is considered to be one of the most promising fish species for production in closed recirculating aquaculture systems. One problem, however, is that there are not enough fry available that have been adapted to dry feed. This could change now, however, because in May 2013 Fischmaster IP Services GmbH opened an ultramodern facility for the reproduction and farming of zander fry. The investment was made without any subsidies.
As energy costs continue to rise, energy efficiency in aquaculture becomes an increasingly important topic. And addressing the topic of energy efficiency isn’t just about the power requirements of individual devices; it means taking a holistic view of all processes that require energy... because sustainable production also means producing more fish with less energy.
Global aquaculture has to face some major challenges in the coming years. On the one hand it has to produce more fish and seafood to meet the rising needs of a growing world population. And on the other hand we are already now reaching the limits of what the available locations can offer for new farms. One way out of this dilemma would be to shift farming into the offshore region but this necessitates new concepts, independent systems, more robust technology – and more risk capital.
Biofilters are bioreactors (also called biocatalysts) that make use of highly complex metabolic activities of various microorganisms to clean water or air. Here “clean” means, above all, to eliminate or render harmless various pollutants or toxic substances. The term “filter” in the sense of holding back or removing unwanted material is not appropriate in so far as biofilters in fact only transform the substances.
When evaluating the environmental sustainability of aquaculture operations water consumption and water discharge quality are important criteria. Today water usage is governed by more or less strict rules almost everywhere in the world. For aquaculture, this often means the obligation to clean and treat the water discharge in such a way that natural ecosystems remain unaffected.
A shrimp farming project is currently underway in Riga, Latvia, producing high quality organic shrimp in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS). The project was launched in May 2014 and uses an intensive biofloc RAS. This system recirculates 100% of the water and has zero discharge, causing no negative effect on the external environment and ensuring the quality of organic shrimp production.